This upcoming weekend, as part of the Kingsmen Shakespeare Company celebration of the 400th deathiversary, I’ll be delivering a presentation on the concept of time in Romeo and Juliet. Great, you say… but, Bill, what does this have to do with King Lear?
Well, in Romeo and Juliet, we know, with amazing specificity, that Juliet is just over two weeks away from her 14th birthday. Amazing specificity. In our last play, we know that Iago is 28 years old (“I have looked upon the world for four times seven years” [Othello, I.iii.311-12]). We also know that in The Winter’s Tale–in the second half of the play–that Perdita is “sixteen years” (The Winter’s Tale, IV.i.6) old. And in our play, Kent says to Lear, “I have years on my back forty-eight” (I.iv.39).
Of the plays I’ve read thus far, these are the most specific age references I can remember.
With apologies to the Joker in The Dark Knight, “Why so specific?”
Lear, too, refers to his own age: “Fourscore and upward, // not an hour more nor less” (IV.vii.58). This is self-contradictory, however: both “not an hour more nor less” … and yet “upward” of 80. If the statement itself is contradictory in its relativity, then can we even believe the number of 80? I think there are a couple of issues working against its veracity here: “Fourscore and upward” as a five-syllable phrase sits in its own poetic line, forcing either a huge pause either before it (it begins its own sentence) or after it (as a caesura of ridiculous pregnancy following its line-ending comma). Is the pause caused by some reaction by his audience (Cordelia–who would most definitely know better–and Kent) or by Lear’s realization of his own lack of certainty? And if the latter is the case, is that confusion building to a point where here must concede–two lines later–when he admits, “I fear I am not in my perfect mind” (IV.vii.60)? Regardless, I personally doubt that he is 80 years old.
Why? (you mean other than the fact that the average life expectancy for Elizabethan England was just over 40 years of age–and would have been even lower for the historical period of Leir [but more on that in a few days]…)
Well, because I have questions regarding the unstated but obviously important ages of his three daughters.
Goneril is the eldest. Lear says of the portion of the kingdom he leaves to her: “To thine and Albany’s issues // Be this perpetual” (I.i.65-6), but no children are referenced. In fact, when Lear curses Goneril for chastising him and his followers for their actions, he speaks of her lack of children:
Suspend thy purpose if thou didst intend
To make this creature fruitful.
Into her womb convey sterility.
Dry up in her the organs of increase,
And from her derogate body never spring
A babe to honor her. If she must teem,
Create her child of spleen, that it may live
And be a thwart disnatured torment to her.
Let it stamp wrinkles in her brow of youth,
With cadent tears fret channels in her cheeks,
Turn all her mother’s pains and benefits
To laughter and contempt, that she may feel
How sharper than a serpent’s tooth it is
To have a thankless child.
This curse of future sterility implies that she is still within her childbearing years (there’s no need to curse a postmenopausal woman with sterility). So how old is Goneril? I’d say that 40 is probably the edge of her probable age.
Then what of Regan? When dispensing her portion of the kingdom, Lear also references possible children (her “hereditary ever” [I.i.78]), but that is the only maternal mention he makes regarding the middle daughter. She’s younger than Goneril, and therefore must–if the older daughter is within her fecundity–also be in her fertile years.
[unless, of course, all of Lear’s anti-fertility curses are either super-cruel mockery or early-senility confusion…]
And Cordelia? How old is she?
She’s old enough to be married, and both Burgundy and France are vying for that. I cannot imagine that she is Juliet-young, though, as Lear had foreseen “set[ting his] rest // On her kind nursery” (I.i.121-22). A child barely into her own adolescence would not be a fitting nurse for an aging king (at least not immediately). And what of that word choice? Her kind nursery…this is a young woman ready to become a mother, not one whose maternal aspects are either ignored (like Regan) or cursed (like Goneril).
I find it interesting that we get such a specific year reference for a seemingly irrelevant character (irrelevant in relative age at least), but contradiction or ambiguity in the characters for whom age is much more crucial.
Why so specific? indeed…