Richard III Historical Timeline

History Timeline

Year Event
1427 Catherine (Henry V’s widow) secretly marries Owen Tudor
1430 Margaret of Anjou born
Catherine bears Edmund Tudor to Owen
1442 Edward, son to Richard Duke of York, is born; later Edward IV
1445 Henry VI marries Margaret
1449 George, son to Richard Duke of York, is born
1450 York returns from Ireland (September)
1452 Richard, son to Richard Duke of York, is born; later Richard III
1455 Battle of Saint Albans (May 22), the first open conflict of the War of the Roses; Somerset killed
Edmund Tudor (age 24) marries Margaret Beaufort (daughter of John Beaufort; age 12)
1457 widowed and 14 year-old Margaret Beaufort gives birth to Henry Tudor (Richmond)
1460 Battle of Wakefield (December 30): Rutland killed (possibly by Clifford), York killed in battle; York’s head cut off and put on the walls of the city with a paper crown on it
1461 Battle of Towton (March 28): Yorkist victory; Margaret, Henry and Edward flee to Scotland; Clifford killed in battle, his body hacked to pieces by Yorkists; Richard (8) and George (11) return from the Netherlands
Coronation of King Edward IV; Richard sent to Middleham to train as a knight (June 29)
1464 Edward marries Lady Grey in secret (May 1)
Warwick goes to France to negotiate Edward’s marriage to Lady Bonne (summer)
Lady Grey introduced as Queen Consort (September 29)
1467 Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy dies; Charles the Bold takes over; Charles has feud with France; England must choose a side in the conflict; over Warwick’s advice, Edward chooses Burgundy
1468 Edward’s sister Margaret marries Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy (this is Charles’ third marriage)
Warwick offers older daughter Isabella to George Duke of Clarence as bride; Edward forbids the marriage
1469 George Duke of Clarence (age 20) marries Isabella Warwick (age 18); a Warwick supporter, Conyers, starts a rebellion in the north; Edward sends forces to quell it; Warwick and Clarence announce support for rebels; Battle of Edgecote Moor takes place on July 26–Lancastrian victory in which Pembroke is killed, after which Warwick and Clarence retreat to France (July)
1470 Through efforts of Louis XI, Warwick and Margaret of Anjou are reconciled; marriage between Prince Edward (age 17) and Warwick’s younger daughter Anne (age 14) arranged
Henry VI is reinstated as King of England (October)
Elizabeth (Lady Grey) gives birth to Edward while in sanctuary in Westminster Abbey (November 2)
Richard given independent military command at age 17
Edward takes on Jane Shore as his mistress (one of many)
Prince Edward (son of Henry VI) marries Anne Neville on December 13
1471 Battle of Barnet (April 14): Yorkist victory; Warwick and Montague (the two Neville brothers) are killed; Margaret lands at Weymouth with her army; first major battle for Richard (age 18)
Battle of Tewkesbury (May 4): Yorkist victory; Prince Edward captured and executed by George Duke of Clarence; Somerset captured and executed on May 6; Margaret escapes and flees to Coventry
Margaret captured (May 11)
Henry VI found dead in the Tower of London (May 22)
Edward IV’s son Edward named Prince of Wales (June 26)
[Richard the Third (the play) seemingly begins here]
1472 Richard marries Anne Neville
1473 Isabella Neville bears a daughter, Margaret, to George Duke of Clarence
Anne Neville bears a son, Edward, to Richard
1475 Edward attempts but fails to invade France; as part of settlement old Queen Margaret is returned to France
Isabella Neville bears a son, Edward, to George Duke of Clarence
1476 Isabella Neville dies at age 25, leaving George Duke of Clarence a widower
1477 Charles the Bold of Burgundy dies in battle, leaving behind only his twenty year-old daughter (from Charles’ previous marriage… before Margaret of York), Mary, as heir
Edward IV forbids George Duke of Clarence to marry Mary of Burgundy
1478 George Duke of Clarence is found guilty of treason, imprisoned in the Tower of London (January 16), sentenced to death (February 7), then “privately executed” on February 18
1482 Queen Margaret dies in France
1483 Edward IV names Richard Lord Protector of his sons
Edward IV dies on April 9
Richard rides from the north, where he had been on a military campaign, to London; at the funeral, calls on all to swear allegiance to Edward V
Richard arrests Rivers and Grey on April 30
Edward V arrives in London, escorted by Richard (whose party met Edward’s before Rivers and Grey’s arrest), on May 4
Richard, son of Edward IV, is released from sanctuary and set to be with his brother in the Tower on June 16
Grey executed on June 13
“Evidence” of Edward and Richard’s bastardy is presented on June 22
Richard declared the legitimate king on June 25
Richard crowned on July 6
Edward, son of Richard, is named heir to the throne, Prince of Wales
1484 Edward, son of Richard, dies on April 9
Edward, son of George Duke of Clarence, is named successor (at Queen Anne’s suggestion)
1485 Anne Neville dies, leaving Richard a widower, on March 16
Richard publicly denies any plan to marry Elizabeth (eldest daughter of Edward IV… his own brother) on April 11
Richard names John de la Pole, son of Richard’s sister Elizabeth, as heir to the throne, negating Edward’s claim
Richmond invades from France on August 7
Richard dies at Battle of Bosworth Field on August 22
Richmond become Henry VII
1486 Henry VII marries Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV, on January 18
1487 John de la Pole executed under orders of Henry VII on June 16
1491 Margaret, daughter of George Duke of Clarence, given in marriage to Richard Pole, by Henry VII
Elizabeth delivers a son, Henry (later King Henry VIII), to Henry VII
1499 Henry VII orders the execution of Edward, son of George Duke of Clarence (and one time heir to Richard’s throne)
1502 James Tyrrell “confesses” to killing Edward V before his beheading in 1502

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